OZONE DYNAMICS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN

OZONE DYNAMICS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN

A collection of scientific papers resulting from the MECAPIP, RECAPMA and SECAP Projects.

© of the present edition: CEAM; Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo
© of the texts: The authors

ISBN: 84-921259-1-8
Depósito legal: V-3667-2002
Design:
Printed by: La Imprenta Comunicación Gráfica, S.L. Spain


        Precio:  GRATUITO (solo gastos de envio).

Disponible directamente en la sede de la Fundacion CEAM

También puede solicitar su envío por correo electrónico: emilio@ceam.es,

Al realizar el pedido se deberán indicar los siguientes datos obligatoriamente: Nombre y Apellidos,  Dirección de facturación, Dirección de envío (si no es la  misma), DNI/CIF y Teléfono de contacto. Te enviaremos confirmación de pedido indicando gastos de envío y los datos de la cuenta en donde se debe realizar el pago. A la recepción del cobro, enviaremos el libro a la dirección indicada en 24-48 horas laborables.

La Fundación CEAM le garantiza la confidencialidad de los datos de carácter personal facilitados por los usuarios y su tratamiento automatizado de acuerdo con la legislación sobre protección de datos de carácter personal y la cláusula de protección de datos

Reservados todos los derechos. Ni la totalidad ni parte de este libro puede reproducirse o transmitirse por ningún procedimiento electrónico o mecánico, incluyendo fotocopia o cualquier almacenamiento de información y sistema de recuperación, sin permiso escrito de la Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo-CEAM.
La Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo no se identifica necesariamente con los contenidos de los diferentes capítulos.

 

Prologue

Southern Europe is unique. It is located in the subtropical latitudes, it has a very complex orography, and it incorporates the world's largest inland sea, the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean basin is surrounded by high mountains along its entire European and Asian perimeter, and the western basin is further confined by the Atlas mountains in northern Africa. As a result, well-recognized climatic differences exist between Southern and Central/Northern Europe. Less recognized, but just as important, are the links that these Southern Europe climatic conditions have with the orography and the atmospheric environmental problems in the region.

In summer, atmospheric circulations across the Mediterranean are dominated by the Azores High at the west and the Asian Monsoon system at the east, and pressure differences of up to » 30 to 40 hPa can develop between the Atlantic coast of Portugal and the Arabian peninsula. Supported by the prevailing orography, extensive and deep convective cells develop during the day, which lead to deep "orographically-aided convection". Thus, subordinate to the major weather structures, other large mesoscale circulations develop with marked diurnal cycles, i.e. the Iberian, Italian and Anatolian Thermal Lows. These, together with their compensatory subsidences over the seas, strongly influence the vertical evolution of the regional flows during the day.

Our awareness of the peculiarities of the meteorological processes in this region began in 1979 after tracking the dispersion from a tall stack plume (340 m in Andorra, Teruel, Spain) followed, within a week, by the Fourth European Campaign for the Remote Sensing of Air Pollution near the Turbigo power plant (Po Valley, Italy). In both cases, nearly 180º diurnal oscillations in the plume directions were observed under the effect of the breeze in the Po valley and under the effects of the Iberian Thermal Low in Spain. Further evidences of the effects of "local" circulations and their vertical extent were obtained during the Sixth European Remote Sensing Campaign in Foss Berre (Marseilles, France, 1983). Air pollution layers associated with the return flows of the seabreeze were identified at » 2000 (+) m asl by LIDAR and by the DLR Falcon Aircraft. This information was used to elaborate the working hypotheses for the MECAPIP project in 1986.

This document presents the results of the projects that followed and the evidence obtained to date. The most significant characteristics of the atmospheric circulations in the Western Mediterranean Basin are: (1) the deep and narrow vertical exchanges over some of the mountain ranges, which produce stratified layers of pollutants over the sea at varying heights and degrees of aging, (2) the slow and persistent subsidence of these layers over the sea, and (3) the self-organization of the local flows at the regional level. The end results are vertical recirculations and the long residence time of air pollutants, which favours chemical reactions.

Scientific acceptance of the atmospheric processes in this region, however, has been slow in maturing as it has had to overcome the accepted level of knowhow dominated by mid latitude meteorology. This situation is further complicated by the inability of current mesoscale meteorological models to fully simulate some of the observed processes, e.g. layering. The experimental fact is that in summer deep vertical exchange processes occur every day and for several consecutive months in Southern Europe, and we hope that the present collection of papers will help to clarify this situation.

The results reported herein have been used in various applied meteorology applications, e.g., analyses of torrential rains and forest-fire winds, and some of the resulting publications have also been included in the present anthology.

In preparing this collection, original reprints of the papers were scanned and subsequently revised to correct for artifacts introduced during the text-scanning process, e.g., extra dots, changed symbols. Some of these, may have slipped through, and the reader should be aware of this.

Finally, we would like to gratefully acknowledge the support of BANCAJA in making this publication possible.

Millán M. Millán, Ph.D.

Fundación CEAM


      

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
The effect of meso-scale flows on regional and long-range atmospheric transport in the íwestern mediterranean area

9

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 25A, Nº 5/6, pp. 949-963, 1991.  
   
Comparative study of seasonal air pollutant behaviour in a Mediterranean coastal site: Castellon (Spain)

25

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 25A, Nº 8, pp. 1523-1535, 1991.  
   
Meteorology and photochemical air pollution in southern Europe: Experimental results from ec research projects

37

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 30, Nº 12, pp. 1909-1924, 1996.  
   
Photooxidant dynamics in the Mediterranean basin in summer: Results from European research projects

53

Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 102, pp. 8811-8823, 1997.  
   
Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric processes over the western Mediterranean area during summer

67

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 8, Nº 3-6, pp. 513-529. 1997.  
   
On the long-range transport of air pollutants from Europe to Africa

81

Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Nº 5, pp. 619-622, 1998.  
   
The dynamics of aged airmasses and ozone in the western Mediterranean: Relevance to forest ecosystems

87

Chemosphere, Vol. 36, Nº 4-5, pp. 1089-1094, 1998.  
   
Horizontal grid size selection and its influence on mesoscale model simulations

93

Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 38, Nº 9, pp. 1311-1329, 1999.  
   
Transport of tropospheric ozone over the bay of biscay and the eastern cantabrian coast of spain

113

Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 39, Nº 4, pp. 475-486, 2000.  
   
Ozone cycles in the western Mediterranean basin: Interpretation of monitoring data in complex coastal terrain

125

Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 39, Nº 4, pp. 487-508, 2000.  
   
Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean During the project regional cycles of air pollution in the west-central Mediterranean area

147

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, pp. 6267-6276, 2001.  
   
Regional transport of pollutants over the bay of biscay: Analysis of an ozone episode under a blocking anticyclone in west-central Europe

157

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, pp. 1349-1361, 2002.  
   
Atmpospheric dynamics and ozone cycles related to nitrogen deposition in the western Mediterranean

169

Environmental Pollution, Vol. 118, pp. 167-186, 2002.  
   
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the east coast of Spain: Relevance of dry deposition in semi-arid Mediterranean regions

187

Environmental Pollution, Vol. 118, pp. 259-272, 2002.  
   

COMPLEMENTARY RESULTS

 
   
Double-camera measurements of plumes, applied to wind field characterization and dispersion studies

203

Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 79, pp. 1-21, 1996.  
   
Rise of moist plumes from tall stacks in turbulent and stratified atmospheres Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 31, Nº 2, pp. 253-269, 1997.

217

   
Meteorological processes relevant to forest fire dynamics on the spanish Mediterranean coast

235

Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 37, Nº 1, pp. 83-100, 1998.  
   
Torrential rains on the spanish Mediterranean coast: Modelling the effects of the sea surface temperature  
Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 40, Nº 7, pp. 1180-1195, 2001.

253

   

BACKGROUND DOCUMENTS

 
   
A fumigation episode in an industrialized estuary: Bilbao, November 1981

271

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 18, Nº 3, pp. 563-572, 1984.  
   
Experimental characterization of atmospheric diffusion in complex terrain with land-sea interactions  
Journal of Air Pollution Control Association, Vol. 37, Nº 7, pp. 807-811, 1987.

281

   

 


 

 

 

En cumplimiento de la Ley Orgánica 15/1999 de 13 de diciembre, de Protección de Datos de carácter personal, le informamos que el envío de la información solicitada supone el consentimiento para que sus datos pasen a ser informatizados y tratados con el único fin para el que son solicitados. La Fundación CEAM se hará responsable de dichos datos en los términos exigidos por la Ley y le garantiza que su único uso será el fin establecido, no siendo cedidos a terceros en ningún caso.
Como usuario del servicio, tiene derecho a acceder a la información que sobre Ud. contengan esos ficheros, así como a corregir o cancelar dichos datos. Para cualquier consulta relacionada con el tratamiento de sus datos puede dirigirse a la propia Fundación, departamento de Administración, en la dirección y teléfonos indicados en esta página Web, así como a la Agencia de Protección de Datos.